1.Strategy formation is a mental process according to the Cognitive School. Strategy is subjective and interpretive according to the human mind and process (150).
2, 3. There were several leading proponents of the Cognitive Model (152-170):
1. Cognition as Confusion- Herbert Simon, Duhaime and Schwenk
2. Cognition as Information Processing- Corner, Kinicki, and Keats: This model has several parts of the human mind as it formulates beginning with attention , encoding, storage, choice and outcomes.
3. Cognition as Mapping – Karl Weick : the map is a mental structure of organized knowledge and thoughts about the future plans.
4. Cognition as Concept Attainment—Herbert Simons: Because strategy is a concept, strategy making is concept attainment.
5. Cognition as Construction – Gregory Bateson: This portion of the school focuses on interpretation of strategy and construction of it.
4. Premises of the model (170):
1. Strategy formation takes place in the minds of the strategist.
2. Strategies emerge as perspectives.
3. Inputs flow through the human minds filters before being decoded by the cognitive maps humans design.
4. Strategies are difficult to attain and difficult to change.
5. A common criticism of the Cognitive School stems from its subjectivity. Because the strategy formation is subject to the minds and conceptual maps of the individual, formation is very different and inconsistent along the board (172).
6. The cognitive school has brought the awareness and importance of the human mind. The school tells us that “we had better understand the human mind, as well as the human brain if we are to understand strategy formation” (173)